To the extent that they produce value and surplus value, teachers are
productive labourers and exist within capital. But teachers also struggle
against the imposition of capitalist work and for their own needs. To
this extent, teachers are unproductive labourers; or, rather, they are
productive of struggle, and exist against and beyond capital.
The interrogation of intellectual property rights utilising the concept
of reification raises the issue of the role of anxiety in the politics of
knowledge: anxiety about personal welfare, and anxiety about control.
Both of these can be readily identified in discussions and disputes
about the scope, applicability and costs of intellectual property rights
in the global system.
This article investigates the nature of neoliberal hegemony in the eu,
and its consequences for the terms of the eu’s eastward enlargement.
It specifically tries to understand why the new central and eastern
European member states are treated worse than the old members,
and how transnational capital contributed to this outcome.
When material conflicts are articulated in terms of identity—in terms
of ethnicity, for example—intra-group class divisions are obscured,
and the potential for inter-group class identification is foreclosed.
This paper is intended as a rejoinder to studies of employment that
rarely mention ethnicity, and which often view state, capital and labour
as uniform rather than as shifting, transient and fragmented.
This paper confirms that the temporal single-system interpretation
of Marx’s value theory, unlike all ‘simultaneist’ interpretations,
deduces his conclusion that all profit comes from the exploitation of
workers. It alone succeeds because, as the paper proves, the monetary
expression of labour time is always positive when defined temporally,
but possibly negative when defined simultaneously.